Kristen Engebretsen

I recently authored a post titled The Top 10 Ways to Support Arts Education, but I’m finding that I get more requests from people asking for reasons why arts education should be supported, not how.

So as a companion piece to the how of supporting arts education, here I offer reasons why arts education should be supported.

Usually, when making the case for arts education, I direct people to resources like the recent Reinvesting in Arts Education report by the President’s Committee for the Arts and the Humanities. It compiles all of the classic arguments in favor of arts education: it boosts student achievement, it increases student engagement, and it helps to close the achievement gap.

My colleague Randy Cohen has also offered reasons to support arts education in his Top 10 Reasons to Support the Arts post. He, too, cites academic achievement, but he also mentions the role of arts education in preparing students with 21st century job skills, like communication and creativity.

However, this post is not about what arts education does in terms of other achievement areas. Rather, it is about what the arts intrinsically do for students.

Below are my favorite points on this topic, written by Elliot Eisner, Lois Hetland, and Ellen Winner. I find that I turn to these arguments because they resonate more with me than the SAT score or workforce development claims. They remind me of my own passion for the arts and why I went into the field of arts education.

When you combine the below intrinsic benefits with the above-named extrinsic benefits, you can tailor your advocacy messages to various audiences and powerfully convey the importance of arts education.

Ten Lessons the Arts Teach
Elliott Eisner, a Professor of Education at Stanford University, has identified 10 lessons which are clarified through the study of art in schools.

1.  The arts teach children to make good judgments about qualitative relationships. Unlike much of the curriculum in which correct answers and rules prevail, in the arts, it is judgment rather than rules that prevail.

2.  The arts teach children that problems can have more than one solution and that questions can have more than one answer.

3.  The arts celebrate multiple perspectives. One of their large lessons is that there are many ways to see and interpret the world.

4.  The arts teach children that in complex forms of problem-solving purposes are seldom fixed, but change with circumstance and opportunity. Learning in the arts requires the ability and willingness to surrender to the unanticipated possibilities of the work as it unfolds.

5.  The arts make vivid the fact that words do not, in their literal form or number, exhaust what we can know. The limits of our language do not define the limits of our cognition.

6.  The arts teach students that small differences can have large effects. The arts traffic in subtleties.

7.  The arts teach students to think through and within a material. All art forms employ some means through which images become real.

8.  The arts help children learn to say what cannot be said. When children are invited to disclose what a work of art helps them feel, they must reach into their poetic capacities to find the words that will do the job.

9.  The arts enable us to have experience we can have from no other source and through such experience to discover the range and variety of what we are capable of feeling.

10.  The arts’ position in the school curriculum symbolizes to the young what adults believe is important.

8 Habits of Mind
In their book Studio Thinking: The Real Benefits of Visual Arts Education authors Lois Hetland and Ellen Winner discuss how arts can promote the following eight habits of mind.

Develop Craft: Learning to use and care for tools (e.g., viewfinders, brushes), materials (e.g., charcoal, paint). Learning artistic conventions (e.g., perspective, color mixing).

Engage & Persist: Learning to embrace problems of relevance within the art world and/or of personal importance, to develop focus and other mental states conducive to working and persevering at art tasks.

Envision: Learning to picture mentally what cannot be directly observed and imagine possible next steps in making a piece.

Express: Learning to create works that convey an idea, a feeling, or a personal meaning.

Observe: Learning to attend to visual contexts more closely than ordinary “looking” requires, and thereby to see things that otherwise might not be seen.

Reflect: Question & Explain – Learning to think and talk with others about an aspect of one’s work or working process.

Evaluate: Learning to judge one’s own work and working process and the work of others in relation to standards of the field.

Stretch & Explore: Learning to reach beyond one’s capacities, to explore playfully without a preconceived plan, and to embrace the opportunity to learn from mistakes and accidents.

Understand Art World: Domain – Learning about art history and current practice.

Communities: Learning to interact as an artist with other artists (i.e., in classrooms, in local arts organizations, and across the art field) and within the broader society.

What would you add to the 10 lessons or 8 habits of mind that arts education provides?

13 Responses to “The Intrinsic Benefits of Arts Education”

  1. Bob says:

    I got here from Twitter not confining my interpretation of arts, as I studied Culinary Arts and even though not intended in this piece my application still applies. The 10 lessons and 8 habits directly apply to my chosen art outlet. #Cheers!

  2. Very well stated. Advocacy efforts need to be reinvigorated with passion in the 21st century. Keep fighting the good fight! More on the benefits of Music Ed:

    FROM THE BAND ROOM TO THE BOARDROOM…The 9 Common Lessons of Music Education That Translate into Success:

    http://bizmusician.wordpress.com/2010/04/06/435/http://bizmusician.wordpress.com/2010/04/06/435/

    “Why Music Education Continues to Lose the Funding Battle” (and why sports programs win)

    http://bizmusician.wordpress.com/2010/03/17/why-music-education-continues-to-lose-the-funding-battle-part-i/

    • Kristen Engebretsen says:

      Thanks for sharing these links. I really like your blog, and just Tweeted “The 9 Common Lessons of Music Education.” via @harvardancer. Cheers!

  3. I am a firm believer in the value of arts in education and of the arts for their own sake, but as a professional educational drama consultant in today’s schools, it is arts integration that secures the most work for me. I used to present a teacher workshop on how to direct a school drama production with many students, little time, and practically no money. When the educational climate changed, that popular workshop failed to get bookings, but my workshops that showed teachers how to merge curriculum content with drama skills were (and are) in high demand. The teachers and students I work with love learning productive ways to use drama. Their curriculum content provides the “ways” and drama provides the “means” of classroom activities. In the process, we achieve many of the Habits of Mind and Ten Lessons detailed above. I hope I live to see schools embrace full-time drama, music, visual art, and dance teachers and programs, but in the meantime, I encourage artists and educators to mine arts integration for its intrinsic benefits.

    • Kristen Engebretsen says:

      So true, Rosalind. I just went to an event at a museum last night and Rachel Goslins from the President’s Committee on Arts and Humanities delivered exactly the same message. She also had a great description of how arts learning is both horizontal (with sequential, standards-based curriculum) AND vertical (a vehicle to connect outwards to other areas). I think we have to advocate for both the horizontal and the verticle. Thanks for your insight on this!

  4. Lianna Purcell says:

    As a graduate of an arts high school, I can say from personal experience that the arts are an important part of education. I was a dance focus student at Appomattox Regional Governor’s School for the Arts and Technology so I not only got to experience one art discipline, I got to see how different disciplines teach students the same basic life lessons. I think “The Ten Lessons” presented here are a very good synopsis of what the arts can teach and how they impact the lives of students. If I had not studied an art form such as dance, I do not know if I would be studying at such a wonderful institution as Virginia Tech with the hope of one day using dance as a form of therapy. Thanks to the lessons I have been taught from the arts I hope to be able to succeed in many other areas of my life! Thank you for taking the time to post this and supporting arts in education. I know the arts have certainly helped me and I hope they will continue to help others for many years to come.

    • Kristen Engebretsen says:

      Thanks for leaving a comment from a student’s perspective. So often educators discuss what’s best for students without hearing from the students themselves!

  5. [...] benefits of arts education from Elliott Eisner, Lois Hetland, and Ellen Winner, via Americans for the Arts’s Kristen Engebretsen. One that I don’t see fully articulated on either list is the ability to question the [...]

  6. [...] In Gardner’s Five Minds, he makes an argument that for the future good of our society, we need to cultivate: 1)The disciplined mind 2)The synthesizing mind 3)The creating mind 4)The respectful mind 5)The ethical mind. I am happy to report that the practice of dance cultivates at least four, if not all five of these minds. Yet another argument for Making Room for Creativity in education and for advocating in more ways for arts education (Also see Americans For the Arts’ Kristen Engebretsen’s Intrinsic Benefits of Arts Education). [...]

  7. Thanks for this post as well as The Top 10 Ways to Support Arts Education. I work with MajoringInMusic.com, an educational web resource for prospective music majors, their parents, music teachers, and anyone in a position to help and support students around choosing to major in music. Your input is really useful especially for music education majors, who need to learn how to advocate for their own careers. It’s never to early to learn how and to start doing so.

  8. [...] Americans for the Arts National Assembly of State Arts Agencies Miller-McCune Artsblog post by Kristen Engebretsen [...]

  9. [...] got a moment to spare. Additionally, if you’ve got less time, you could check out these Ten Lessons the Arts Teach, by Elliott Eisner of Columbia University, as blogged by Kristen Engebretsen of Americans for the [...]

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Alec Baldwin and Nigel Lythgoe talk about the state of the arts in America at Arts Advocacy Day 2012. The acclaimed actor and famed producer discuss arts education and what inspires them.